Fresh eyes will allow you to find things you might not otherwise have seen.

Here are some facts to consider when proofreading and editing:

The Purdue OWL website has much more detail in the proofreading process.

Students regularly underestimate the right time it requires to write an essay, in particular the planning and researching stages.

Before you start your essay, take a look at the Massey University assignment planning calculator.
You could be surprised just how long the process that is whole!

As you can plainly see from the assignment planning calculator, in the event that you only start your essay a couple of days prior to the due date, you are going to need to do things too quickly.

You need time and energy to mix all of the ingredients properly, or perhaps the final result will never be what you want to share with you with other people! if you believe of the essay/cake analogy,

To publish a 1000 word essay, ideally you really need to allow yourself about 3 weeks.

Let’s take a look at how an essay time management ‘cake’ could be divided into slices:

You can see that the part that is biggest of your energy is spent on the planning/research elements and redrafting/editing/proofreading elements, which together should comprise around 60% of your time.

Take a look at another model to also see what you want to consider:

Here is the final version of the essay that is chocolate. You can also download it as a pdf document.

Since Spanish explorers cut back chocolate through the “” new world “”, chocolate consumption is becoming a phenomenon that is worldwide. A derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form at first, chocolate. However, chocolate’s inherent popularity does not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested by the title. The realities of chocolate are more down to earth; a number among these realities is likely to be addressed in this specific article. Chocolate has chemical properties that may influence mood and there is possible evidence for some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Yet, such attributes that are positive counterbalanced somewhat by the argument that, in certain instances, chocolate can be viewed a drug instead of a food. Moreover, there is the probability of some correlation between over-consumption of obesity and chocolate. Thus, it is argued that despite chocolate’s effect that is positive some cases on mood plus the cardiovascular system it has also been linked to addiction and obesity.

Consumption of chocolate is one thing that many enjoy, and there is evidence (Parker, Parker, & Brotchie, 2006) that high carbohydrate foods such as for example chocolate do have a ‘feel good’ effect. Moreover, Scholey and Owen (2013) in a systematic post on the literature on the go point out several studies, such as Macht and Dettmer (2006) and Macht and Mueller (2007), which seem to confirm this effect. Yet, as Parker, Parker and Brotchie (2006, p. 150) note, the mood results of chocolate “are as ephemeral as holding a chocolate in one’s mouth”. In addition, mood is one thing that is difficult to isolate and quantify, and besides the study by Macht and Dettmer (2006) there is apparently little research on any longer term mood affecting influences of chocolate. Another point is raised by Macht and Dettmer (2006), whose study found that positive responses to chocolate correlated more with anticipation and temporary sensory pleasure, whereas guilt has also been a statistically significant factor for all, for whom the ‘feel-good’ effect will be minimalised. Since these authors stress, “temporal tracking of both positive and negative emotions” (p.335) before and after consuming chocolate in future studies could help in further knowing the ‘feel good’ effect and more negative emotions.

Another possible influence that is positive of is upon cardiovascular health. Chocolate, processed accordingly, could be a provider of significant levels of heart-friendly flavanols (Hannum, Schmitz, & Keen, 2002) that assist in delaying blood clotting and reducing inflammation (Schramm et al., 2001). Such attributes of flavanols in chocolate have to be considered within the context of chocolate’s other components – approximately 30% fat, 61% carbohydrate, 6% protein and 3% liquid and minerals (Hannum, Schmitz, & Keen, 2002). The key to maximising the many benefits of flavanols in chocolate seems to lie into the standard of fats present. Cocoa, which can be simply chocolate without the fat, is considered the most obvious candidate for maximising heart health, but as Hannum, Schmitz and Keen (2002) note, most cocoa products are made through an alkali process which destroys many flavanols. Optimal maximisation for the flavanols involves such compounds being contained in cocoa and chocolate products at levels where they’ve been biologically active (Ariefdjohan & Savaiano, 2005).

The biological makeup of chocolate is also relevant in determining whether chocolate is much better regarded as a food or a drug, nevertheless the boundaries between indulgence and addictive behaviour are unclear. Chocolate contains some biologically active elements including methylxanthines, and cannabinoid-like unsaturated essential fatty acids (Bruinsma & Taren, 1999) which may represent a neurochemical dependency possibility of chocolate, yet can be found in exceedingly small amounts. Interestingly, and linked to chocolate and mood, Macdiarmid and Hetherington (1995) claim their study found that “self-identified chocolate ‘addicts’” reported a correlation that is negative chocolate consumption and mood. That is perhaps indicative of addictive or type behaviour that is compulsive. However, as Bruinsma and Taren (1999) note, eating chocolate can represent a sensory reward based, luxurious indulgence, based around texture, aroma and flavour anticipation, in place of a neurochemically induced craving. Yet, it was argued that chocolate might be used as a form of self-medication, especially in relation to magnesium deficiency. A study by Pennington (2000 in Steinberg, Bearden, & Keen 2003) noted that ladies usually do not generally meet US guidelines for trace elements, including magnesium. This correlates with earlier studies done by Abraham and Lubran (1981), who found a correlation that is high magnesium deficiency and nervous tension in women. Thus, tension-related chocolate cravings could possibly be a biological entity fuelled by magnesium deficiency. Overall, however, any difficulty . the proportion of people using chocolate as a drug rather than a food based sensory indulgence is small, though further research might prove enlightening.

A final point to consider in terms of chocolate is the perception that chocolate is linked to obesity. A person is thought as being obese when their Body Mass Index is greater than 30. The literature on chocolate and obesity has clearly demonstrated that there are no specific correlations between the two variables (Beckett, 2008; Lambert, 2009). It is typified by the findings of Mellor (2013), who discovered that, during a period of eight weeks of eating 45 grams of chocolate each day, a small grouping of adults demonstrated no significant weight increase. As Lambert (2009) notes, chocolate consumption alone just isn’t very likely to cause obesity, unless huge amounts of other calorie dense foods are consumed and this calorie dense intake is greater than necessary for bodily function, allowing for amounts of activity. The‘chocoholic’ that is stereotypical more prone to consume a great many other sweet foods and be less likely to take exercise than many other people, so chocolate consumption is just one possible variable when considering the sources of obesity.

Chocolate and obesity consumption seemingly have no proven correlations. Yet, in this essay, many chocolate focused arguments have now been presented, like the transient aftereffect of chocolate on mood and also the fact that it is as likely to create feelings of guilt at the time of well-being. Another possible positive dimension to chocolate is a correlation with cardiovascular health. Yet the possibility great things about flavanols in chocolate are currently offset because of the fat/carbohydrate that is high on most forms of chocolate. Whether chocolate is a food or a drug is also unclear. The literature outlines the chemical properties of chocolate that could help explain some addictive type behaviour, particularly in regards to nervous tension in females, but there is also a powerful research concentrate on chocolate as a sensory-based indulgence. It could therefore be said that chocolate is certainly not a food that is healthy but can be enjoyed included in a wholesome and balanced lifestyle and diet.

‘Integrity’ relates to ‘honesty’, and academic integrity involves writing in an honest way, to make certain that no one will think you are claiming that words or ideas from someone else are your own. This will be significant in academic writing in western countries, and if you fail to repeat this you may be accused of plagiarism, that is a critical offence at university.

Plagiarism means using someone else’s words, ideas or diagrams without acknowledgement.

Needless to say, when we write an essay we have to make reference to other people’s ideas. We gave some of the reasons behind this before:

  • To show respect for others’s ideas and work
  • To clearly identify information coming from another source
  • To differentiate an external source from your interpretation or your own findings
  • To aid your own arguments, thus giving you more credibility
  • To demonstrate proof of wide (and understood) reading
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